Development of society

Ontology

theory of what exists

Epistemology

theory of what we can know about what exists

Methodology in the strict sense

application of epistemology to issues of ontological concern, leading to

Theories

Concepts as description of reality. Theôreîn: observing, viewing, looking at.

Originally meaning viewing truth on the ground of «pure contemplation», irrespective of the usefulness and applicability in practice.

Theories, then, are developed from concepts derived from thesis and hypothesis.

Methods

Are only «tools» by which the examination, evaluation and contemplation is undertaken.

Comparative studies

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single country description of politics

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analysis of similar processes and institutions in a limited number of countries

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studies developing typologies or other forms of classification schemes for countries or subnational units;

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statistical or descriptive analysis of data from a subset of countries testing some hypothesis about the relationship of variables within that «sample»

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statistical analysis of all countries attempting to develop patterns and/or test relationships across the entire range of political systems (119)

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Increasingly: comparison of states who adapt to «mainstream Western patterns» by looking at the processes of adaptation and comparing the «state they had been in» with the «state they are going to».

 

                                                       

 

Natural law

Moral law

«Positive order»

«Negative order»

Rousseau

Locke

Hobbes

Liberalism

I. Kant: society as relationship of «rational beings»

A. Smith: society as wealth production of free individuals

J. Locke: society understood as «Treaty of free owners/proprietors, defining the relation of citizens in a freedom-based society, founded on property

 

                                                   

Lex aeterna

In particular «divine laws»

Lex naturalis

In any case thought to be «independent from sources that are influenced by humans/human action: e.g.

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god

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logos

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human nature

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reason.

As a specific type of natural law we find the «law of reason» («Vernunftrecht»): a form of law that is derived from the form of law itself.

Lex positiva

The law put down by (individuals and) institutions (respectively) in order to regulate relations, activities, structures …

 

 

Question

Look at the question of "the development of asylum seekers in Ireland".

I. What can you say about the requirements of the different dimensions of methodology in the widest sense? Provide a brief sketch on the analysis of "the development of asylum seekers in Ireland" in terms of ontology, epistemology, methodology in strictu sensu, theory and methods. Make sure that these remarks are consistent.

II. Look at different "forms of law" that are possibly involved in looking at "the development of asylum seekers in Ireland". Develop which form of law is in your opinion involved, which form of law is not involved and give reasons for your opinion.