Rights, as getting clear from T.H. Marshall’s analysis, are essentially part of welfare capitalism. Although they appear as mechanisms overcoming capitalist structures (and possibly means that can be used to fight capitalism) they are characteristic elements of capitalism and the welfare state, the latter being a facet of the state as «ideal collective capitalist».

Linking the debate back to what had been said in the section on «Development of Society» we begin with the two poles of the social on the one hand and the societal level on the other hand.

This can be linked to the Social Quality Approach insofar as it provides the analytical factors by pointing out 4 conditional factors, namely socio-economic security, social inclusion, social cohesion and empowerment.




societal level



social level





















In every case including «legitimation» and «reproducing a capable working class»



















Means of Solidarity and Securing «Togetherness»


scandinavian model

securing citizenship as guiding topic of social policy












Means of Integration and Solidarity



French concept of the corporatist welfare state

«les exclus» as main guiding topic of social policy



Means of Integration and Oppression


«Bismarkian-liberalist» model


alienation of property; decommodification in the framework of a principally highly commodifying system and the distinction between «deserving» an «non-deserving poor»


«the poor» as main guiding topic of social policy


historical development



É      3        ×


          2          ×


×                 1


Ä                           Ø


Ø       5




as the new level, however, «re-integrated» by means of managerialism and «administering quality»



É   cohesion


×  inclusion


×       socio-economic security           Å


               Ä                           Ø                         Ø                              È


Factors of Social Quality

Empowerment remains marginal as it is only concerned with patterns of «economic empowerment», i.e. labour market integration.

However, in general the levels to which the SQ-factors are reached are not scoring high as the (welfare) capitalism is following principally the notion of liberalism. Even the Keynesian welfare state is based on principal of commodification.