** Further information **

Domains: what makes society and social integration possible

Socio-economic security

is the degree to which people have command over material and immaterial resources over time in the context of social relations.



Work "workfare", employment security, quality of employment
Financial security social security, income, dependence on income support
Housing quality of housing, affordability, quality of environment
Health quality of health & care services, lifestyle, physical and mental health
Education levels and distribution of education and skills
Social Networks dependence on family, friends and charity
Time time spent on care (unpaid work), travel time

Social Inclusion

is the degree to which people are and feel integrated in the different social relations (systems, institutions, organisations and structures) that constitute everyday life.



Citizenship rights constitutional/political rights, social rights, civil rights
Labour market access to paid employment, quality of employment
Public services health services, transport, commercial facilities, leisure services
Social Networks friendships, neighbourhood participation, family life



is the strength of social relations between people (including networks) which are a function of the integration of the integration between integrative norms and values (including trust and solidarity) in society.

Domains Sub-domains
Trust generalised trust, specific trust
Integrative norms and values altruism, justice, commonality and reciprocity
Social networks horizontal network, vertical networks, cross-cutting ties
Identity national/European, regional/community/local interpersonal


is concerned with the means and processes necessary for people to be capable of actively participating in social relations and actively influencing the immediate and more distant social and physical environment.

Domains Sub-domains
Personal Capability and relationships general and political knowledge, access to information, availability of advice and guidance, job flexibility. "compensating socialisation", personal relationships
Civic rights availability of access points, openness of community towards new organisations ..., openness for "unorganised" action
Accessibility of the institutional system/civic control electoral system and political accessibility, material independence of accessibility pf political system, availability of services supporting physical and social independence



The definitions provided on this site are outcome of a ongoing research project, funded by the European Commission under the 5th Framework Programme, undertaken  under the aegis of the European Foundation on Social Quality, Amsterdam. The definitions, as given had been in particular dealt with during a meeting middle of October, referring to working documents:

Socio-economic security: Laurent can der Maesen, Margo Keizer, European Foundation on Social Quality, Amsterdam, Netherlands with contributions by David Gordon, Peter Townsend Centre

Social Inclusion: Allan Walker, Andrea Wigfield, University of Sheffield, U.K.

Social Cohesion: Yitzhak Berman, European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Vienna, Austria; David Phillips, Department of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield, U.K.

Empowerment: Peter Herrmann, European Social Organisational and Science Consultancy, Agahbullogue, Ireland


Further information on the approach of Social Quality can be found in two contributions which are published on the methodology literature section of this website.