Bob Deacon

Globalisation, Europeanisation and the Future of Welfare.

1.     Globalisation and Welfare States

2.     Europeanisation and Welfare States

3.     Global Social Governance Reform (lessons from Europe?)

 

GLOBALISATION:        Deterritorialism.

    Economics and politics.

    Neo-liberal character of globalisation.

 

 

GLOBALISATION’S IMPACT ON WELFARE STATES?

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Welfare states in competition

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New IO’s and INGOs’ in picture

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Global Discourse on ‘best’ social policy

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Global private welfare markets

 

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Conservative corporatism threatened

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Liberalism goes with flow but inequity

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Social Democratic is sustainable   
(but not replicable?)

 

Continuing challenge to equity.

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A) Bank and minimal state

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B) INGOS and substitution

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C) Development Targets basic

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D) GATS and global markets

 

EUROPE ON THE GLOBAL STAGE.

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Accommodation to liberalism?

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Social Protectionism?

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Rhetorical case for social dimension?

EUROPE’S ADVICE TO ACCESSION COUNTRIES.

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Limited legal requirements

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Social requirements talked up

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Accession reports mixed:minority rights but privatisation

THE DIRECTION OF POST-COMMUNIST COUNTRIES.

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Uncompetitive pay-roll taxes?

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Hasty moves to privatise?

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Caught between the Bank and Europe

PROSPECTS FOR IMPROVED SOCIAL GOVERNANCE AT THE GLOBAL LEVEL

THE ISSUES.

Institutional Fragmentation and Competition

(A fault line in debate on this issue is between those primarily in the North who wish to bring more order into this situation by for example empowering the UN in global economic and social affairs and by empowering the South to be more effective actors in the international game and some primarily in the South who put the case for a decentred globalisation with a plurality of institutions especially at regional level offsetting the major Breton Woods players).

International Finance for Global Public Goods

(A global political strategic issue is how the USA position on these issues can be confronted.)

Global Social Regulation

(An issue here is how far EU activity of this kind is regarded by the South as an example to be followed or an obstacle to truly global regulation.)

Global Social Rights

(An issue here is whether the Bank will subscribe to the concept)

 

AMBITIOUS GLOBAL GOVERNANCE REFORMISM.

1. The Social Functions and Institutions of Governance at National, Regional and Global Level. (as now)

 

FUNCTION/

POLICY FIELD

NATIONAL GOVERNMENT

EU REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

CURRENT GLOBAL ARRANGEMENTS

Economic stability

Central Banks

Central Bank in EURO zone

IMF/ Bank of International Settlements?

Revenue Raising

National taxation

Customs revenues plus government ‘donations’ (talk of tax harmony and regional tax)

None but mix of UN appeals, ad hoc global funds, bi and multilateral ODA.

Redistribution

Tax and income transfers policy plus regional funds

Structural funds on social criteria.

None but ad hoc humanitarian relief, special global funds, debt relief and differential pricing (drugs).

Social Regulation

(Labour and social standards)

State laws and directives.

EU laws and directives.

Soft ILO, WHO etc conventions. UN Conventions. Voluntary codes.

Social Rights (Citizenship Empowerment)

Court redress. Consumer charters. Tripartite governance.

EU Luxembourg Court Redress. Tripartite Governance. (note also C of E Strasbourg Social Charter)

UN Commission

For Human Rights but no legal redress. Civil Society Monitoring.

2. The Current Institutions of Social Governance at National and EU  Regional level and A Reformed Global level.

 

CONSTITUENT INTERESTS

NATIONAL

INSTITUTIONS

EU REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS

POTENTIAL REFORMED GLOBAL INSTITUTIONS

The electorate

Parliament.

EU Parliament with fewer powers

World Peoples Assembly?

Government Ministers

Cabinet etc.

Councils of Ministers

Reformed UN ECOSOC?

Civil Service

Ministries.

EU Commission

Combination and Rationalisation of Overlapping Sector Functions of

UNDESA, UNDP, ILO, WHO, UNESCO, World Bank, WTO, OECD, and NEW Tax Authority.

Judiciary

Courts

Luxembourg Court

(And C of E Strasbourg Court of Human Rights)

New International Court with Human Rights Mandate.

Capital

Central Bank

Central Bank

Central Bank

Labour (civil society)

Trade Unions and statutory consultations.

TUs on Economic and Social Committee and consultations.

Enhanced TU and civil society consultation mechanisms

 

OBSTACLES TO AMBITIOUS GLOBAL SOCIAL GOVERNANCE REFORM.

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Southern resistance to the northern reform agenda favouring de-globalisation. (www.focusweb.org), (www.global-south.net),(www.undp.org/tscd)

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 Northern ‘neo-liberalism’s’ alliance with the   southern resistance that champions global neo-liberalism as in the interests of the South (i.e. UK DFID as a Southern Champion?) (www.dfid.gov.uk)

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 The continued Power of Neo-liberalism.(USA)

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The continued appeal of national sovereignty.

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Limited supranational Institutional Capacity

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Limited Popular Constituency for Radical Reformism.

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The appeal of Cultural Diversity

LIKELY DEVELOPMENTS IN THE LIGHT OF THEORIES OF GLOBAL GOVERNANCE.

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COSMOPOLITAN DEMOCRACY views of Held, Falk and others who argue the world is moving towards supra-national forms of accountable global governance.

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REALISTS who argue that national political power and associated international agreements will continue.

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COMPLEX MULTILATERALIST compromise position of O’Brien et al suggests that global social movements DO already influence International Organisations and bypass the national policy making process but national policies are ALSO important.

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Complex multilateralists suggest a reform agenda that is more circumscribed than Ambitious Reformism. This might embody elements of:

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bullet Moves to Constructive regionalism with a social dimension as a building block to an Inter-regional globalisation.
bullet   Increased International Institutional Cooperation and Policy Convergence rather than a realignment of power between Bank and UN.
bullet A more articulate and louder Southern voice(s) in the global debate leading to a de-facto pluralistic globalisation (Bello 2002)
bullet More Global ‘Philanthropy’ and donation rather than taxation
bullet Working through of the Global compact including socially responsible TNCs. (Annan’s vision)